Educational Articles

Small Mammals + Medications

  • Flunixin meglumine is given by mouth, injection, or applied directly to the skin and is used on and off label to treat pain and inflammation in a variety of species. Give as directed by your veterinarian. Side effects include swelling at the injection site, muscle stiffness, or sweating. Do not use in pets that are allergic to it or other NSAIDs, in pets expecting to give birth within the next 2 days, or in birds. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Griseofulvin is given by mouth and is used on and off label to treat skin, hair, and nail fungal infections. Give as directed by your veterinarian. Common side effects include lack of appetite, vomiting, and diarrhea. Do not use in pets that are allergic to it, pregnant pets, breeding males, pets that have severe liver disease, or in cats with FIV or FeLV. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Hydroxyzine is given by mouth or injection and is used off label to treat allergic or itchy conditions. Give as directed. The most common side effect is sedation. Do not use in pets that are allergic to it or cetirizine, or pets that have heart failure, urinary obstruction, or stomach obstruction. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Itraconazole is given by mouth in the form of a capsule, tablet, or liquid to treat fungal infections in cats and for off label treatment in dogs and small mammals. The most common side effects are anorexia, vomiting, liver toxicity, skin lesions, or limb and vessel swelling. It should not be used in pets with liver disease or low stomach acid production, and used with caution in pregnant, lactating, or pets with heart disease. If a negative reaction occurs, call your veterinary office.

  • Kaolin/pectin is given by mouth and is used off label to treat diarrhea and certain toxicities. Use as directed by your veterinarian. Side effects are uncommon, but constipation is possible (rarely). Do not use in pets that are allergic to it, or to control severe diarrhea or diarrhea that is caused by an infection. Do not use the combination product that includes bismuth subsalicylate in cats. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Ketoconazole is an antifungal given by mouth in the form of a tablet, used off label to treat fungal infections in dogs, cats, small mammals, and reptiles. The most common side effects are vomiting, diarrhea, lack of appetite, and weight loss. Do not use in pets that are allergic to it, and use severe caution when using in cats or pregnant pets. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Ketoprofen is given by mouth or injection and is used on and off label to treat pain and inflammation in many animal species. Give this medication as directed by your veterinarian. Common side effects include gastrointestinal upset such as vomiting, diarrhea, and lack of appetite. Do not use in pets that are allergic to it or other NSAIDS, in horses used for breeding, or in pets using other NSAIDs. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Leuprolide is given by injection and is used off label in ferrets and birds to treat reproductive and adrenal problems. Give as directed. Side effects in ferrets may include pain at the injection site, breathing difficulties, and sleepiness. Do not use in pets that are allergic to it or other gonadotropin-releasing hormones, and do not use in pregnant or nursing pets. If a negative reaction occurs, please call the veterinary office.

  • Lincomycin is given by mouth or injection and is used on and off label to treat certain bacterial infections. Give as directed by your veterinarian. Common side effects include vomiting, diarrhea, or drooling. Do not use in pets that are allergic to it or similar drugs, in pets with a candida fungal infection, very young pets, or in rabbits, hamsters, guinea pigs, or horses. If a negative reaction occurs, please call the veterinary office.

  • Loperamide is given by mouth and is used off label to treat signs of diarrhea. Give as directed by your veterinarian. Common side effects include constipation, bloat, and sleepiness. Do not use in pets that are allergic to it, that have diarrhea due to an infection or a toxin, or that are positive for the MDR1 gene. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.