Educational Articles

Surgical Conditions

  • The post-operative period is just as important as the surgery itself. Following the set instructions will help avoid complications and lead to a smoother recovery. Monitor the incision daily for signs of redness, swelling, discharge, or excessive licking. Consider using an Elizabethan collar to keep your dog from licking the incision site. Should you have any concerns, contact your veterinarian immediately.

  • The main objectives of fracture repair are to promote rapid healing of the fracture and to get the cat using its leg as quickly as possible. In most cases, this involves rebuilding the broken bone and fixing it in that position with metallic implants. Post-operative care includes pain medications, antibiotics, adequate nutrition, exercise restriction, and physiotherapy. Most fractures can be repaired very effectively and in many cases, your cat will resume normal activity.

  • The main objectives of fracture repair are to promote rapid healing of the fracture and to get the dog using its leg as quickly as possible. In most cases, this involves rebuilding the broken bone and fixing it in that position with metallic implants. Post-operative care includes pain medications, antibiotics, adequate nutrition, exercise restriction, and physiotherapy. Most fractures can be repaired very effectively and in many cases, your dog will resume normal activity.

  • The term TECA-BO is an abbreviation for Total Ear Canal Ablation and Bulla Osteotomy. This surgery involves the complete removal of the ear canal and tympanic bulla (middle ear), leaving only the ear flap (pinna) remaining. It is recommended in cases of chronic, end-stage otitis (ear infections), in which medical treatment is no longer helping the patient.

  • The hip joint is a ball and socket joint. The ball is at the top of the thigh bone (femur), and the socket (acetabulum) is in the pelvis. Total hip replacement surgery removes and replaces both the ball and socket with prostheses. Most commonly, dogs having a total hip replacement will have a thorough examination and a blood screening profile to prepare for general anesthesia. Post-surgery, the dog will spend 3 to 5 days in the hospital to get the healing off to a good start. Approximately 90 - 95% of dogs who have a total hip replacement do very well and have excellent post-surgical function.

  • Lipomas are benign fat tumors commonly found in Budgies, some Amazon parrots, galahs and sulphur crested cockatoos. They are most often found under the skin on the sternum (breastbone or keel bone) or on the ventral abdomen, but can be anywhere on the body.

  • Xanthomas are discrete masses or diffuse, thickened areas of skin that are yellow-orange and dimpled in appearance. They are accumulations of fat and cholesterol and are most commonly found in cockatiels and budgies (and they are more often found in females).

  • While not as commonly seen as they are in dogs and cats, tumors do occur in birds. Birds of any age can develop tumors.

  • Malignant lymphoma (lymphosarcoma) and leukemia are among the most common malignancies seen in ferrets. Diagnosis may be made by fine needle aspiration or biopsy. For a dedicated owner with a compliant patient, surgery and/or treatment with chemotherapy is an option. Remission of lymphoma is possible with treatment in ferrets, but recurrence is common. Ferrets also commonly develop insulin-producing tumors of the pancreas that lower the ferret’s blood sugar and cause weakness, weight loss, lethargy, seizures, coma, and death. Insulinoma commonly spreads from the pancreas to the liver, so surgical removal of pancreatic insulinoma nodules may not be curative. Affected ferrets respond well for months to years to medical therapy with glucose-promoting drugs (prednisone) and anti-insulin drugs (diazoxide). Drugs suppress effects of the tumor but do not eliminate it; and ferrets on medical treatment must have their medications increased over time as the tumor grows.

  • Ulcerative keratitis is a kind of inflammation that occurs in the cornea of the eye. Some breeds seem to develop them more commonly, particularly Himalayan, Persian, and Burmese cats. The signs of ulcerative keratitis depend somewhat on the cause and how long the condition has been present. There are many potential causes of ulcerative keratitis, including trauma, infection, and abnormal tear production. Antibiotic ointment or drops will be prescribed, and it is important to prevent additional trauma to the cornea. Superficial corneal ulcers typically heal within 5 to 7 days.